Plant Survey at Six Ponds, Plymouth
A.Zinovjev and I.Kadis
August/September 2015

The total number of plants recorded is 306, of which 243 are native (including 7 of conservation concern) and 63 introduced (including 23 invasive). The results are only preliminary due to short survey time. Additional surveys during other seasons would produce a more complete picture.

The results are summarized in the table, which shows the presence and frequency of each species at each of the six ponds. The table also provides the number of species found and the "integrity coefficient" for each pond: a ratio of the number of native species to the number of introduced (adjusted by adding a point for each species of conservation concern).


Plant grouping and listing order
Plants are grouped into categories that are arranged in the following order: water plants; grasses, sedges, and rushes; ferns; other herbaceous plants; herbaceous vines; woody vines; semi-woody plants; shrubs; trees; and conifers.) Within each group, the order is alphabetical (by Latin name).

Coding for native, non-native, and invasive plants
Letters N or I following a species' name in the column "Status" are to be read, respectively, "Native" and "Introduced." For a few species there is no consensus as far as their nativity in SE Massachusetts. These are marked "N?" or "I?". The following standard letter codes are used for native plants of conservation concern: SC = Plant of Special Concern; WL = Watch-Listed Plant (endangered or threatened plants not found).

Introduced plants officially black-listed in MA are labeled 'INVASIVE' (in capitals). We have found certain plants to be invasive, even though officially they have not yet been listed. These are marked "invasive" in small letters.

Frequency/presence color coding
Frequency of each plant on each pond was assessed using a five-step scale: solitary—rare—occasional—frequent—common. These five gradations are shown in gray color of variable intensity. In addition to this scale, whenever a plant formed a significant clump/thicket/grove and was not found outside this discrete aggregation, we recorded is as "a clump/grove" (showed in green). In cases when frequency could not be assessed, plants were recorded as "present" (showed in yellow). If a plant was not found, the corresponding area is left blank (white).

Latin plant names are linked to respective Salicicola photo gallery pages containing photos of the species taken elsewhere in Massachusetts. Photos from the Six Ponds are available at the Six Ponds Photo Gallery along with maps.

Number of Plants at Each Pond
Native/Introduced Ratio + Rare
Little Long Pond
83 (81% native)
4.2 [67/16] + 0
Round Pond
98 (92% native)
11.3 [90/8] + 3
Halfway Pond
182 (83% native)
4.9 [151/31] + 2
HP with roads
189 (80% native)
4.1 [152/37] + 2
Long Pond
106 (80% native)
4.0 [85/21] + 6
Bloody Pond
157 (87% native)
6.5 [136/21] + 5
BP with annex
166 (87% native)
6.9 [145/21] + 5
Gallows Pond
98 (86% native)
6.0 [84/14] + 1

Water Plants

Status Little Long Pond Round Pond Halfway Pond HP with roads Long Pond Bloody Pond BP with annex Gallows Pond
Brasenia schreberi (watershield) N
Callitriche stagnalis (water chickweed) I
Callitriche heterophylla (variable water-starwort) N
Ceratophyllum demersum (hornwort, coontail) N
Decodon verticillatus (swamp loosestrife, waterwillow) N
Elodea canadensis (northern waterweed) N
Elodea nuttallii (Nuttall's waterweed) N
Eriocaulon aquaticum (pipewort, white buttons) N
Isoetes sp. (tuckermanii, engelmannii or hybrid) (quillwort) N
Isoetes tuckermanii (Tuckerman's quillwort) N
Lobelia dortmanna (water lobelia) N
Myriophyllum humile (lowly watermilfoil) N
Myriophyllum tenellum (leafless watermilfoil) N
Najas flexilis (common naiad) N
Nuphar variegata (yellow waterlily, spatterdock) N
Nymphaea odorata (American white waterlily, fragrant waterlily) N
Nymphoides cordata (floating heart) N
Pontederia cordata (pickerelweed) N
Potamogeton berchtoldii (Berchtold's pondweed, slender tiny pondweed) N
Potamogeton bicupulatus (hairlike pondweed) N
Potamogeton epihydrus (surface pondweed, ribbonleaf pondweed) N
Sagittaria filiformis (threadleaf arrowhead) N
Sagittaria latifolia (common arrowhead) N
Sagittaria teres (pondshore or terete arrowhead) — Special Concern SC
Scirpus subterminalis (dsfsdfds) N
Sparganium americanum (common bur-reed) N
Stuckenia pectinata (sago false pondweed) N
Typha angustifolia (narrow-leaved cattail) N?
Typha latifolia (broad-leaved cattail) N
Utricularia intermedia (northern bladderwort, flat-leaved milfoil) N
Utricularia cornuta (horned bladderwort) N
Utricularia geminiscapa (twin-scaped bladderwort) N
Utricularia inflata (inflated bladderwort) I?
Utricularia purpurea (purple bladderwort) N
Utricularia radiata (small floating bladderwort) N
Utricularia subulata (slender, subulate, or zigzag bladderwort) — Special Concern SC
Vallisneria americana (tapegrass, water celery) N
Grasses, Sedges, Rushes

Status Little Long Pond Round Pond Halfway Pond HP with roads Long Pond Bloody Pond BP with annex Gallows Pond
Agrostis scabra (northern ticklegrass) N
Andropogon glomeratus (bunched broomsedge) N
Bulbostylis capillaris (tufted hairsedge) N
Calamagrostis canadensis (Canada bluejoint) N
Calamagrostis epigeios (feathertop, bushgrass) I
Carex lasiocarpa var. americana (slender woolly-fruited sedge) N
Carex longii (Long's sedge) N
Carex lurida (sallow sedge) N
Carex pensylvanica (Pennsylvania sedge) N
Carex scoparia (broom sedge) N
Cladium marsicoides (twig-sedge) N
Cyperus lupulinus (slender sand flatsedge) N
Cyperus dentatus (pondshore flatsedge) N
Cyperus strigosus (straw-colored flatsedge) N
Deschampsia flexuosa (common hairgrass) N
Dichanthelium dichotomum = Panicum dichotomum (forked panic-grass) N
Dichanthelium acuminatum (pondshore or fascicled panic-grass) N
Dichanthelium clandestinum (deertongue) N
Digitaria sanguinalis (large crabgrass) I
Dulichium arundinaceum (three-way sedge) N
Echinochloa crus-galli (barnyard grass) I
Eleocharis flavescens (olive spike-rush) N
Eleocharis acicularis (needle spike-rush) N
Eleocharis obtusa (soft-stemmed spike-rush) N
Eleocharis palustris (marsh spike-rush) N
Eleocharis robbinsii (Robbins' spike-rush) N
Fimbristylis autumnalis (northern fimbry) N
Glyceria obtusa (coastal mannagrass) N
Holcus lanatus (velvet grass) I
Juncus canadensis (marsh or Canada rush) N
Juncus effusus (common rush) N
Juncus greenei (Greene's rush) N
Juncus militaris (bayonet rush) N
Juncus pelocarpus (pondshore rush) N
Juncus tenuis (path rush) N
Leersia oryzoides (rice cutgrass) N
Miscanthus sinensis (Chinese plumegrass) I
Panicum dichotomiflorum (fall panic grass) N
Panicum verrucosum (warty panic-grass) N
Phalaris arundinacea (reed canarygrass) INVASIVE
Phragmites australis (common reed) INVASIVE
Poa annua (annual bluegrass) I
Poa compressa (flat-stemmed bluegrass) I
Rhynchospora alba (white beak-rush) N
Rhynchospora macrostachya (big-headed horned sedge) N
Rhynchospora capitellata (brown beak-rush) N
Schizachyrium scoparium (little bluestem) N
Scirpus cyperinus (common bulrush) N
Scirpus pungens (common threesquare) N

Status Little Long Pond Round Pond Halfway Pond HP with roads Long Pond Bloody Pond BP with annex Gallows Pond
Acalypha rhomboidea (three-seeded mercury) N
Achillea millefolium ssp. lanulosa (yarrow) N
Agalinis paupercula (small-flowered gerardia) N
Agalinis purpurea (purple false foxglove) N
Ambrosia artemisiifolia (annual ragweed) N
Apocynum androsaemifolium (spreading dogbane) N
Artemisia vulgaris (common wormwood, mugwort) invasive
Asclepias incarnata ssp. pulchra (downy swamp milkweed) N
Asclepias syriaca (common milkweed) N
Aster dumosus = Symphyotrichum dumosum (long-stalked aster) N
Aster pilosus var. pilosus = Symphyotrichum pilosum (white oldfield aster) N
Aster pilosus var. pringlei = Symphyotrichum pilosum var. pringlei (Pringle's aster) N
Aster racemosus = Symphyotrichum racemosum (smooth white oldfield aster) N
Aster lateriflorus = Symphyotrichum lateriflorum (calico aster) N
Aster novi-belgii = Symphyotrichum novi-belgii (New York aster) N
Aster patens = Symphyotrichum patens (clasping aster, skydrops) N
Aster puniceus = Symphyotricum puniceum (bristly aster, swamp aster) N
Aster umbellatus = Doellingeria umbellata (tall flat-topped white aster) N
Aureolaria pedicularia (fernleaf yellow false foxglove) N
Bartonia virginica (screwstem) N
Bidens connata (swamp beggar-ticks) N
Bidens frondosa (common beggar-ticks) N
Centaurea stoebe ssp. micranthos (spotted or bushy knapweed) INVASIVE
Centaurea x moncktonii (Monckton's knapweed) I
Cerastium fontanum (common mouse-ear chickwee) I
Chenopodium album (pigweed) I
Cicuta maculata (water-hemlock) N
Cirsium vulgare (bull thistle) I
Convallaria majalis (lily-of-the-valley) invasive
Conyza canadensis = Erigeron canadensis (horseweed, hogweed) N
Coreopsis rosea (pink tickseed) — Watch-Listed WL
Daucus carota (queen Anne's lace) I
Drosera intermedia (spoonleaf sundew) N
Epifagus virginiana (beech-drops) N
Epilobium ciliatum (American willowherb) N
Epipactis helleborine (helleborine) I
Erechtites hieracifolius (fireweed, pilewort) N
Erigeron strigosus (rough fleabane) N
Eupatorium fistulosum = Eutrochium fistulosum (hollow-stemmed Joe-Pye-weed) N
Eupatorium dubium = Eutrochium dubium (Atlantic Joe-Pye-weed) N
Eupatorium perfoliatum (boneset, thoroughwort) N
Eupatorium purpureum = Eutrochium purpureum (sweet Joe-Pye-weed) N
Euphorbia maculata = Chamaecyce maculata (spotted spurge) N
Euthamia caroliniana = Solidago tenuifolia (coastal plain slender goldenrod) N
Euthamia graminifolia = Solidago graminifolia (common flat-topped goldenrod) N
Fragaria virginiana (wild strawberry) N
Galinsoga quadriradiata (hairy quickweed) I
Galium tinctorium (Clayton's bedstraw) N
Galium trifidum (three-lobed bedstraw) N
Gnaphalium obtusifolium = Pseudognaphalium obtusifolium (sweet everlasting, fragrant cudweed) N
Gratiola aurea (golden hedgehyssop) N
Gratiola neglecta (mud hedgehyssop) N
Helianthemum canadense = Crocanthemum canadense (longbranch frostweed) N
Hieracium scabrum (rough hawkweed) N
Hieracium caespitosum = Hieracium pratense (king-devil, meadow hawkweed) I
Hieracium gronovii (Gronovius' hawkweed) N
Hieracium sabaudum (Savoy hawkweed, Canada hawkweed) I
Hypericum canadense (Canadian St. John's-wort) N
Hypericum ellipticum (pale St. John's-wort) N
Hypericum gentianoides (orange grass, pineweed) N
Hypericum perforatum (common St. John's-wort) I
Hypochaeris radicata (hairy cat's-ear) invasive
Impatiens capensis (jewelweed) N
Iris versicolor (northern blueflag) N
Lactuca serriola (prickly lettuce) I
Lactuca canadensis (yellow wild lettuce) N
Lechea maritima (beach pinweed) N
Lepidium virginicum (Virginia pepperweed) N
Leucanthemum vulgare (oxeye daisy) I
Lindernia dubia var. dubia (false pimpernel) N
Ludwigia palustris (water purslane, mud loosestrife) N
Lycopus virginicus (Virginia water-horehound) N
Lycopus amplectens (pondshore water-horehound, sessile water-horehound) — Watch-Listed WL
Lycopus uniflorus (tuberous water-horehound) N
Lysimachia quadrifolia (whorled loosestrife) N
Lysimachia terrestris (swamp candles) N
Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) INVASIVE
Maianthemum canadense (Canada mayflower) N
Medeola virginiana (Indian cucumber-root) N
Melampyrum lineare (cowwheat) N
Mollugo verticillata (carpetweed) I
Nuttallanthus canadensis (blue toadflax, old-field toadflax) N
Oenothera biennis (common evening primrose) N
Oxalis stricta (common yellow woodsorrel) N
Plantago major (common plantain) I
Polygala cruciata (cross-leaved milkwort) N
Polygonella articulata = Polygonum articulatum (jointweed) N
Polygonum pensylvanicum = Persicaria pensylvanica (Pennsylvania smartweed) N
Polygonum persicaria = Persicaria maculosa (lady's thumb) I
Polygonum punctatum = Persicaria punctata (dotted smartweed) N
Polygonum puritanorum = Persicaria puritanora (pondshore smartweed) — Special Concern SC
Potentilla norvegica (three-finger, strawberryweed) N
Prenanthes trifoliolata (tall rattlesnake-root) N
Rhexia virginica (northern meadowbeauty, wingstem meadowpitchers) N
Rumex acetosella (sheep sorrel, red sorrel) invasive
Rumex obtusifolius (red-veined dock) I
Sabatia kennedyana (Plymouth gentian) — Special Concern SC                
Scutellaria lateriflora (blue skullcap) N
Sisyrinchium angustifolium (stout blue-eyed-grass) N
Solidago caesia (wreath goldenrod) N
Solidago nemoralis (gray goldenrod) N
Solidago odora (licorice goldenrod, sweet goldenrod) N
Solidago puberula (downy goldenrod) N
Solidago canadensis (Canada goldenrod) N
Solidago rugosa (rough-stemmed goldenrod) N
Solidago sempervirens (seaside goldenrod) N
Stachys hyssopifolia (hyssop hedgenettle) — Watch-Listed WL
Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion) I
Triadenum virginicum = Hypericum virginicum (marsh St. John's-wort) N
Trichostema dichotomum (forked bluecurls) N
Trifolium arvense (rabbitfoot clover) I
Tussilago farfara (coltsfoot) INVASIVE
Verbascum thapsus (common mullein) invasive
Veronica officinalis (common speedwell) I
Viola lanceolata (bog white violet, lanceleaf violet) N
Viola sp. (violet) N
Xyris difformis (bog yellow-eyed grass) N

Status Little Long Pond Round Pond Halfway Pond HP with roads Long Pond Bloody Pond BP with annex Gallows Pond
Dennstaedtia punctilobula (hayscented fern) N
Dryopteris carthusiana (spinulose wood fern) N
Onoclea sensibilis (sensitive fern) N
Osmunda cinnamomea = Osmundastrum cinnamomeum (cinnamon fern) N
Osmunda regalis (royal fern) N
Pteridium aquilinum (bracken fern) N
Thelypteris noveboracensis (New York fern) N
Thelypteris palustris (marsh fern) N
Herbaceous Vines

Status Little Long Pond Round Pond Halfway Pond HP with roads Long Pond Bloody Pond BP with annex Gallows Pond
Amphicarpaea bracteata (hog-peanut) N
Apios americana (groundnut) N
Calystegia sepium (morning-glory) N?
Cuscuta gronovii (common dodder) N
Mikania scandens (climbing hempvine) N
Polygonum scandens = Fallopia scandens (climbing false buckwheat) N
Solanum dulcamara (climbing nightshade, bittersweet nightshade) invasive
Woody Vines

Status Little Long Pond Round Pond Halfway Pond HP with roads Long Pond Bloody Pond BP with annex Gallows Pond
Aralia nudicaulis (wild sarsaparilla) N
Celastrus orbiculatus (Oriental bittersweet, Asian bittersweet) INVASIVE
Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle) INVASIVE
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper) N
Smilax glauca (sawbrier, wild sarsaparilla) N
Smilax rotundifolia (catbrier, bullbrier) N
Toxicodendron radicans (poison ivy) N
Vitis labrusca (fox grape) N

Status Little Long Pond Round Pond Halfway Pond HP with roads Long Pond Bloody Pond BP with annex Gallows Pond
Chimaphila maculata (striped pipsissewa, spotted wintergreen) N
Epigaea repens (trailing arbutus, mayflower) N
Gaultheria procumbens (wintergreen, checkerberry, eastern teaberry) N
Hudsonia tomentosa (woolly beach heather) N
Rubus allegheniensis (Allegheny blackberry, common blackberry) N
Rubus flagellaris (northern dewberry) N
Rubus hispidus (bristly dewberry, swamp dewberry) N
Vaccinium macrocarpon (American cranberry) N

Status Little Long Pond Round Pond Halfway Pond HP with roads Long Pond Bloody Pond BP with annex Gallows Pond
Alnus rugosa (speckled alder) N
Alnus serrulata (smooth alder, common alder) N
Amelanchier canadensis (thicket shadbush, eastern serviceberry, juneberry) N
Aronia x prunifolia (purple chokeberry) N
Baccharis halimifolia (sea-myrtle) N
Berberis thunbergii (Japanese barberry) INVASIVE
Cephalanthus occidentalis (common buttonbush) N
Chamaedaphne calyculata (leatherleaf, cassandra) N
Clethra alnifolia (sweet pepperbush) N
Cornus amomum = Swida amomum (silky dogwood) N
Cotoneaster divaricatus (spreading cotoneaster) I
Elaeagnus umbellata (autumn olive) INVASIVE
Euonymus alata (winged spindletree, burning bush) INVASIVE
Gaylussacia frondosa (blue huckleberry, dangleberry) N
Hamamelis virginiana (witch-hazel) N
Ilex glabra (inkberry holly) N
Ilex laevigata (smooth winterberry holly) N
Ilex verticillata (common winterberry holly) N
Kalmia angustifolia (sheep laurel) N
Leucothoe racemosa = Eubotrys racemosa (swamp sweetbells) N
Lonicera morrowii (Morrow's honeysuckle) INVASIVE
Lyonia ligustrina (maleberry) N
Myrica gale (sweet gale) N
Myrica pensylvanica = Morella pensylvanica (bayberry) N
Quercus ilicifolia (scrub oak) N
Rhamnus frangula (glossy buckthorn) INVASIVE
Rhododendron catawbiense (catawba rhododendron) I
Rhododendron viscosum (swamp azalea) N
Rhus copallina (flameleaf sumac, winged sumac) N
Rosa multiflora (multiflora rose) INVASIVE
Rosa palustris (swamp rose) N
Rosa rugosa (Japanese rose, saltspray rose) invasive
Salix atrocinerea / cinerea (rusty willow / gray willow) INVASIVE
Salix discolor (large pussy willow) N
Salix purpurea x viminalis (green-leaved hybrid willow) I
Salix sericea (silky willow) N
Sambucus canadensis (common elderberry) N
Spiraea alba var. latifolia (meadowsweet) N
Spiraea tomentosa (steeplebush) N
Vaccinium pallidum (hillside blueberry) N
Vaccinium corymbosum (sensu lato) (highbush blueberry) N
Viburnum dentatum var. lucidum (northern arrowwood) N
Viburnum nudum var. cassinoides (wild raisin, witherod) N

Status Little Long Pond Round Pond Halfway Pond HP with roads Long Pond Bloody Pond BP with annex Gallows Pond
Acer rubrum (red maple) N
Betula pendula (silver birch) I
Betula populifolia (gray birch) N
Betula sp. (exotic birch) I
Fagus grandifolia (American beech) N
Ilex opaca (American holly) N
Nyssa sylvatica (tupelo, black gum) N
Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood) I
Populus tremuloides (trembling aspen) N
Prunus serotina (black cherry) N
Quercus alba (white oak) N
Quercus coccinea (scarlet oak) N
Quercus rubra (northern red oak) N
Quercus velutina (black oak) N
Rhus vernix = Toxicodendron vernix (poison sumac) N
Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust) INVASIVE
Salix nigra (black willow) N
Salix x fragilis (hybrid of brittle and white willow) I
Salix x sepulcralis = babylonica x alba (weeping willow) I
Sassafras albidum (sassafras) N
Sorbus aucuparia (European mountain-ash) I

Status Little Long Pond Round Pond Halfway Pond HP with roads Long Pond Bloody Pond BP with annex Gallows Pond
Juniperus virginiana (eastern red cedar) N
Picea abies (Norway spruce) invasive
Picea glauca (white spruce) I
Pinus resinosa (red pine) I
Pinus rigida (pitch pine) N
Pinus strobus (white pine) N
Pinus sylvestris (Scotch pine) I
Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock) N

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